Friday, November 29, 2019
Table of Contents Introduction Informed consent Assessment of risks and benefits Selection of subjects Conclusion Reference List Introduction Belmont report has in a great deal helped in establishing ethical guidelines for conducting research and experimentation in several spheres. It has helped in formulation of ethical principles and guidelines that have helped in protection of human subjects who have taken part in research (National Institutes of Health, 1979).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It cannot be denied that scientific research has its inherent social benefits but it has to be noted that some disturbing ethical questions have been raised by these researches (Commission for Protection of Human subjects, 1979). There have been issues related to abuse of human subjects especially after World War II when biomedical e xperiments were conducted on prisoners in concentration camps. There was not for these experiments to be done in an ethical manner. This research will discuss the role Belmont Report has played in establishing ethical guidelines for conducting research and experimentation. Informed consent Belmont report expressly reiterates that subjects who take part in research have to consent to take part in that particular research. The consent has to be informed. Subjects have to be in the know of what is to become of them as participants. This is only possible when certain conditions are satisfied. There are three elements of consent namely information, comprehension, and voluntariness. Subjects have right to know the purpose of the research, the procedure that is involved, the inherent risks and benefits, and where therapy is involved, an alternative procedure that will be involved. Subjects must be accorded opportunity to ask question and withdraw from research when they feel like. Likewise , the subjects have to fully comprehend the manner and context of the information conveyed. Information should not be divulged in disorganized and rapid fashion. A subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s consent to participate in a research activity can only valid if they do so voluntarily. Subjects should not be coerced or influenced unduly. Usage of overt threat is unethical as it amounts to coercion. Subjects should also not be inappropriately rewarded as this amount to undue influence. Assessment of risks and benefits Investigators have to ensure that proposed research is properly designed. Assessment of risks and benefits helps the review committee to determine if risks the subjects are presented with are justified.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Assessment of risks and benefits helps the subjects in determining whether they should participate in a study or not. It is pertinent that the nature and scope of the risks involved are ascertained to help subjects know if the risks and benefits are favorable. It is imperative that risks and effects that directly impact the research subject is given much attention. Risks and benefits must be systematically assessed so that a balance is arrived at (Kiefer, 2001). In assessment of justifiability of research, aspects touching on brutality or inhuman treatment of subjects should not be deemed morally justified. When vulnerable populations are involved in a research, it is imperative that a demonstration be made as to why they have to be involved. Selection of subjects Selection of subjects to take part in a research should take into consideration fair procedures and outcomes. Individual justice in selection of subjects requires that fairness be involved. Potentially beneficial researches should not be a preserve of a particular group of subjects. Social justice demands that a distinction be made between subjects that should or should not take part in research. Using this criterion, classes of subjects like the adults, and children do arise. On this basis preference may be given to children or adults. Conclusion Ethics demand that subjects taking part in research are adequately informed about what the research is all about. Moreover, they have to be informed about the risks and the benefits involved. Finally, the selection of subjects should integrate aspects of individual justice and social justice. Reference List National Institutes of Health. (1979). The Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Retrieved from https://ohsr.od.nih.gov/ Kiefer, J. (2001). The History and Importance of Informed Consent in Clinical Trials. Retrieved from https://serendipstudio.org/biology/b103/f01/web2/kiefer.htmlAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (1979). Regulations and Ethical Guidelines. National Institutes of Health. This essay on The Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines was written and submitted by user Carleigh Howell to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Intro to Afro-American Studies I Afro-005 Essays - Americas Intro to Afro-American Studies I Afro-005 Dr. Gregory Carr March 7, 2017 What are some of the similarities and differences in practices of self- determination of Africans in the U.S. and their counterparts throughout the hemisphere? Abstract: Africans in the United States and Africans in the Western Hemisphere both practiced self-det ermination. Practices of self-d etermination came in different forms such as marronage and quilombismo , as a means to bring African people together, forming allegiances. Self-determination also came in the form of various techniques of resistance. Having learned techniques of resistance, Africans emerged as a power ful unity and started to resist enslavement. Realizing tha t if they were going to overpower the system of enslavem ent they first had to terminate "dominating social structure", the Africans began their journey in terminating the identity that were given to them and began creating an identity for their selves. Critical Review of Scholarship: Several books as well as class discussions were used as aids to answer this question. One book was Black Movements in American by Cedric Robinson. This book discusses how African people practiced self-determination in many ways and depending on social structure and were able to find themselves. Also discussed in this book is how Black people have been trying to resist slavery. A second book used was the Atlas of African-American History and Politics: From the Slave Trade to Modern Times. This book not only served as a visual, but also talked about the Africans' reasoning behind joining the American Revolution and gave intensive information of Africans' struggle for freedom in United States and throughout the hemisphere. Other evidence that serves as an aid in answering this question are the class discussions led by Dr. Carr. Discussion: To begin, we first define what self-determination is. Self-determination is "a characteristic of a person that leads them to make choices and decisions based on their own preferences and interests, to monitor and regulate their own actions and to be goal-oriented and self-directing". As the self-determination of the Africans strengthened, the vision of their ultimate goal, freedom, grew. No matter what their plans were or how they differed, the end game was always freedom and a chance to create an identity for their selves. As stated in Black Movements in America, "Resistance among the slaves and bonded laborers assumed various appearances: appeals to the court, physical violence, flight, and rebelliousness,". One method used by the Africans to gain freedom was to fight in the American Revolution. However, there were Africans fighting on both sides. As stated in the Atlas of African-American History and Politics, while over 5,000 free blacks served in the Continental Army, there were an equal number of free and runaway black slaves fighting in the British Army. Though they chose to fight on different sides, the goal was still freedom. Another technique used by the Africans to gain freedom through self-determination was to rebel. A great example is the Haitian Revolution, one of the most violent and successful slave revolts of America. It was said that the revolts were very organized. In fact they were so organized that in 1793 the French government, who ruled the island at that time, abolished slavery on the island. Haiti eventually gained its independence in 1804 through consistent rebellions. This shows the level of dedication and self-determination that the Africans in Haiti had. In a class discussion we spoke about a lady named Ona (Oney) Judge. Judge's technique of self-determination and resistance was one more on the nonviolent side. Ona was a slave for George Washington and his wife. She used the law, oddly enough, to gain her freedom. She escaped to New Hampshire, where by law she was technically free. George Washington was unsuccessfully at having her returned to his plantation. In another class discussion we spoke about marronage. Marronage (maroons) is refers to people who escaped slavery, and created independent groups and communities on the outskirts of slave societies. This was another form of a nonviolent technique used by the Africans to gain their freedom. Further Questions: In my attempt to answer the question of what are some of the similarities and differences in practices of self- determination of Africans in the U.S. and
Friday, November 22, 2019
Free will - Essay Example For a human being, true exercise of Ã¢â¬Ëfree willÃ¢â¬â¢ is associated with multiple determinants such as physical/causal, psychological, biological and theological, which affect the decision for the ultimate action (Timothy, 2011). Personal, moral and societal constraints may thus affect the true exercise of free will. Free will has also been associated with the concept of moral responsibility for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions by most philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢, who have commented on the topic in history, shifting the onus to the individual being wholly responsible for taking an informed and educated decision when confronted with a peculiar situation or aspect of life (Timothy, 2011). However, there have been contentious issues on understanding the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëfree willÃ¢â¬â¢ as philosophers agree, and at the same time disagree on its relationship with determinism (Vargas, 2006). Some philosophers believe that the two are compatible, while othersÃ¢â¬â¢ swear to the contrary.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Summarising a Scientific Journal - Literature review Example Theoretically, this complexity and variability in conclusions implies that parameters used in achieving mixing quality will not always be independent but inversely related to each other (Wolfgang et al., 1999). Practically, all laboratory experimenter are admonished to be very watchful in guiding the fluid mixers in order to achieve uniform outflow of micro channels. Major Findings: Results are in three sections though they all centre round mixing quality. On mixing quality and loss pressure, results revealed that in the presence of large range of volume flow, there is tendency of quality mixing can be achieved if the conditions of proper combination of slit and micro channels are adhered to. This implies that experimenters must be proactive in their choice of micro channel selection. Similarly, Hessel et al. (2005) point out that Ã¢â¬Å"quality mixing can be accomplished by time-pulsing flow owing to a periodical change of pumping.Ã¢â¬ On the parallelization of mixing elements, r esults showed that reactants achieve high volume flow when channel depths are increased in a single mixing unit. This implies that when using one single mixing unit, parallelization of mixing which ensures increased volume flow in specified regions of >700mL/h cannot be realized. On the actual volume flow as it relates to quality mixing, the results showed that there could be deviations on the volume flow depending on the mixer array. This assertion is however disagreed by Omega (1995) who posits that in a fully laminar system, there is supposed to be constant mixing quality whenever mixing is done over an entire flow range. Weaknesses and Strengths: In the methodology, what was supposed to be an experimentation ended up using too many secondary data and comparative assumptions. For instance instead of the researchers monitoring the mixing time, they stated, Ã¢â¬Å"the mixing time cannot be directly measured by the test reaction. Instead a comparison was made for mixing elements hav ing various channel widths.Ã¢â¬ It will be noted that any element of mixing is highly important in the results achieved in any micro-mixers experiment. However, the researchers choose comparative assumption. On the use of secondary data, it is admitted that secondary data helps in making qualitative analysis of data highly valid; however in the actual collection of data, it is important that there is a distinction drawn between primary data collection and secondary data collection. If for nothing at all, the researchers could have different sections of their project report, depicting these two variations. The research report has a number of strengths. For instance the presentation of data was very vivid amidst the use of diagrams and figures to elaborate all points. Again, the entire report was well segmented, making the use of the document very easy to follow. For instance the researchers used sub-topics to differentiate new ideas. Suggestions The beauty of all research work is that they are a continuous process. This means that there is always room for improvement and advancement. To this end, some few suggestions are made towards the future improvement of the research work. It is suggested that future researches should make clearer distinction on active and passive mixing principles. This suggestion is given against the backdrop that whenever active and passive principles are used, researchers always have the chance of considering expanded scopes of
Monday, November 18, 2019
Fences by Augusta Wilson - Essay Example All The other characters in the play are closely related to the protagonist. The conflicts arises in the play are due to his self illusion and philosophy. He is a person living between two contradictory ideas like that of his name Ã¢â¬ËMaxonÃ¢â¬â¢ a fusion of Mason and Dixon. To some extend we feel that he is an unsympathetic character. The illegal relation with Alberta visibly shows that he is a hypocrite. He was insisting others to be perfect in their life, but he was not so. At the same time he enjoys the freedom of choice. Troy never learned how to treat people close to him and he never gave any one a chance to prove themselves because he was selfish. TroyÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his son Ã¢â¬ËCoryÃ¢â¬â¢ reveals the essential quality of a tragic hero, i.e. doing whatever they think right. Troy never allows his son to play football claiming that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want Cory to suffer like him. He says Ã¢â¬Å"The white man are not gonna let you get nowhere with that footba ll no wayÃ¢â¬ Cory accuses his father and says Ã¢â¬Ëyou just scared IÃ¢â¬â¢m gonna be better than you, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all Ã¢â¬Å".
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Working with emergent change Introduction Nowadays, people tend to speak of living in a fast-moving and unpredictable world (Burnes, 2004, p. 886), in a turbulent, dynamic and unpredictable environment (Burnes, 2000, p. 300) in which the frequency, dimensions and unpredictability of changes are higher than ever before (e.g. Kotter, 1996). Hammer and Champsy even go so far as to say that because of its ubiquity and endurance change is the norm (2001, p.25). Thus, the Heraclitean dictum that everything changes and nothing abides seems more topical than ever. Nonetheless, you have to take notice of the fact that about 70% of all change initiatives fail (Beer Nohria, 2000, p.133). How can this phenomenon be explained? What approaches of change exist and what enables organisations to manage changes successfully? In the following essay, I will first outline the traditional approach of planned change, its critics and, out of these, the evolving Emergent Change approach. Subsequently, I will question if a sheer focus on the apparent predominant processual approach is sufficient. I will do so by outlining case studies of two organisations that successfully implemented changes by paying attention to both planned and emerging changes. These results and Burnes analysis of a further organisational change initiative will lead to my conclusion that the consideration of both perspectives is necessary for successful organisational changes. Then, I will briefly analyse possible reasons that might lead to the previously discussed one-sided perspectives before I end the essay with a conclusion. Planned Change The Planned Change approach seemed to prevail in the theory as well as the practice of change management from the late 1940s to the early 1980s (Burnes, 2000, p.281) and is often referred to as the best developed, documented and supported approach to change (Ibid.). Its roots mainly lie in the work of Kurt Lewin (Bamford and Forrester, 2003, p.547) who is called by Schein the intellectual father of (Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦) planned change (1994, p.239). Many planned change attempts are based on his three-stage model of unfreezing, moving and refreezing (Livne-Tarandach Bartunek, 2009). Nevertheless, it has to be noted that Lewin himself believed that a successful change considered his concepts about Field Theory, Group Dynamics and Action Research in addition to his famous three-stage model (Burnes, 2004, p.887). However, in regard to his latter model, the three steps can be outlined as followed: Unfreezing describes the destabilization of a quasi-stationary equilibrium that exists in a compount field of driving and inhibiting forces (Ibid.). It is postulated that this equilibrium has to be unsettled to overcome old stable human behaviour. Moving refers to the process of transmission to a new way of being (http://www.change-management-coach.com/kurt_le win.html). To lead to an enduring change this process requires reinforcement. Thus, the last step, refreezing, covers the stabilization of the new behaviour (Burnes, 2004, p.887). Bamford and Forrester state that this perspective is grounded on the assumption that organisational change is a process that moves from one fixed state to another through a series of pre-planned steps (2003, p.547). Consequently, it is to be systematically analysable and can be intentionally designed, initiated, and realized (Livne-Tarandach Bartunek, 2009). The importance of Lewins work on organisational change is indisbutable. Accordingly, several authors have developed resembling approaches, such as Cummings and Huses (1989) eight-phase model or Bullocks and Battens (1985) four phase model of planned change (Bamford Forrester, 2003, p.547). Nonetheless, the weaknesses of the planned change approach at a time in which the environment becomes more and more unpredictable and turbulent seem obvious. Thus, many critical voices arouse especially in the early 1980s following the oil shocks of the 1970s, the expanding Japanese competitive power and the apparent eclipse of Western industry (Burnes, 2000, p.281). These events raised questions regarding the efficacy and appropriateness of the established approaches. The main points of criticism, that mainly came from the culture-excellence school, the postmodernists and the processualists are outlined in the following (Burnes, 2004). First, the Planned Change perspective is reproached to neglect environmental factors that might be incompatible with the planned change. For instance, Stickland, who draws on systems theory, emphasises the role of internal and external influences as drivers for organisational change (Tarandach Bartunek, 2009, p.4). A further point of criticism, that is especially brought out by the processualists, is that a change is not a series of pre-identified discrete and self-contained events, but a more open-ended and continuous process where it is often unfeasible or unwanted to define a precise end state (Livne-Tarandach Bartunek, 2009, p.5). Furthermore, critics, such as Pfeffer (1992), blame the approach for ignoring the role of power and politics. They claim, in addition, that the advocated assumption of easily recognizable and resolvable conflicts is unrealistic in most organisational settings (Tarandach Bartunek, 2009, p.5). Emergent Change Taking these points of criticism into account, a different perspective on organisational change has evolved, namely an emergent, processual approach. According to Weick, emergent changes comprise ongoing accommodations, adaptions, and alterations that produce fundamental change without a priori intention to do so (2000, p.237) and although Bamford and Forrester argue that its followers seem to be more united in their stance against planned change than their agreement on a specific alternative (2003, p.547), you can still highlight certain characteristics that are typical for the Emergent Change approach. Peculiar to the approach is the assumption that organisational change occurs as a continuous process of experiment and adaption with the goal of adjusting the organisational processes and competences to a continuously changing environment. The idea of a turbulent environment, that prevails in todays societies and makes exclusive planned change programmes insufficient, is supported by several authors. Dawson (1994) and Wilson (1992), for example, emphasize the demands for a higher employee flexibility and constant structural adjustment that are associated with an increasingly dynamic and uncertain business environment (Burnes, 2000, p.283). This constant structural adaption is brought about through a great number of small- to medium-scale incremental changes which might give rise to a major re-configuration and transformation of an organisation (p.299). Related to this assumption is a further characteristic of the Emergend Change Approach, that is to say, the belief in the iterative and messy fashion of change processes (p.300). Thus, Pettigrew stresses the multi-causal, non-linear and unpredictable nature of change that develops through the interplay of multiple variables (Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦) within an organisation (p.284). These variables involve different contexts, political processes and consultation. Similarly, Dawson states that disruption, confusion and unforeseen events that emerge over long time-frames determine change processes (Dawson, 1994, cited in Burnes, 2000, p.285). Furthermore, the Emergent Change perspective sees organisational change as a political-social process and does not narrow it down to a sheer analytical-rational routine (p.300). Hence, it is assumed that during a change various parties will seek to preserve or amend their own interests. This can lead to conflicts and intrigues. Accordingly, Burnes argues that the successful management of power and politics is a prerequisite for effective change (p.292). These power struggles are not limited to the upper professions of an organisation. Thus, Burnes continues that it is beneficial not only to possess the support of senior and local managers, but also of trade unions and workplace employees. Summing up, you can say that the Emergent Change approach stems from the idea that change is continuous, unpredictable, and essentially political in nature (Livne-Tarandach Bartunek, 2009, p.5). It evolved in response to the traditional Planned Change approach that rooted in the works of Kurt Lewin, but seemed insufficient in a time characterized by a dynamic and unpredictable environment. However, although the declination of the Planned Change approach appeared predominant and the literature provided increasing support for the Emergent Change approach, it has to be questioned if a sheer focus on the lauded processual approach is adequate. Or would organisations profit from a combinational perspective paying attention to both approaches? Several authors, in fact, suggest combining varying approaches to change (e.g. Burnes, 2004; Beer and Nohria, 2000) or have developed connection frames to link planned and emergent change over time (Livne-Tarandach Bartunek, 2009, p.3). In the foll owing I will present two examples of organisational changes to underpin my opinion that neither a solely planned nor a sheer emergent change approach is likely to lead to successful changes. On the contrary, I argue for a combination of both approaches. Example 1 A first example of the insufficiency of a perspective that would solely focus on planned or emergent changes is provided by Orlikowski and Hofman (2003) who studied the introduction of a new technology and the accompanied changes in a software company. They even go one step further and assume not just planned and emergent changes in organisations, but also opportunity-based changes. Zeta is one of the Top 50 software companies in the USA and produces several powerful software products enabling decision support, executive information and marketing (p.269). Furthermore, it has a revenue of $100 million, and employs approximately 1000 people in its offices around the world. In 1992, a new groupware technology was introduced in the Customer Service Department (CSD) within which a new Incident Tracking Support System (ITSS) was developed. The CSD consisted of specialists who technically advised clients, consultants and other Zeta employees and stakeholders via telephone. The aim of the new ITSS was to facilitate the minuting of customer calls and of the respective resolving progress of customers problems. In the course of this process some planned organisational changes were executed. These changes are referred to as planned changes because they were predicted prior to the introduction of the new technology. For instance, the specialists were now to provide an additional work-in-progress documentation and the managers controled the departments recources more precisely through the real-time access to workload information (p.271). Nevertheless, while using of the new technology, several emergent changes could be noted as well. The specialists, for example, worked out a body of informal quality indicators to ascertain the quality and value of prior resolutions (p.270) and managers considered documentation skills as decisive factors in hiring and evaluation processes. In the course of time further changes were introduced which Orlikowski and Hofman reference to as opportunity-based changes. In contrast to the beforehand mentioned, these changes were neither anticipated before the introduction of the new technology nor did they simply emerge spontaneously. Opportunity-based changes occur when an emergent change is observed and actors deliberatley decide to reinforce (or undercut) that change (http://icd.si.umich.edu/~cknobel/?q=node/41). Thus, they are enforced in situ and responding to arising chances and problems. An example of such an opportunity-based change appeared along the invention of partnerships betwee n less expert junior specialists and more experienced senior specialists to redistribute call loads which lead to unforeseen problems. For instance, the junior specialists refused to cede calls that were too difficult to their senior partners because they wanted to appear competent and didnt want their senior partners to be overloaded. On the other hand, the senior specialists were too engaged to monitor their junior partners. Thus, the new role of an intermediary was introduced to prevent the collapse of the system. This intermediary was seen as a buffer to facilitate the information flow between the junior and the senior partner. A range of opportunity-based changes arouse during the usage of the new technology that demonstrated the importance of ongoing learning and change in practice in organizations. Thus, the example showed that although planned changes occur in organisations, they are usually accompanied by emergent and opportunity-based changes. This means that the planned change of the introduction of the new technology in the CSD was followed by other planned changes as the additional work tasks of the employees on the one hand. Nevertheless, further ongoing changes emerged that made a continuous adaption of the organization essential. Example 2 WikstrÃ ¶m (2004) presents another vivid example of an organisation that has to deal with planned as well as emergent changes that arise at environmental, organisational and individual levels. His case study of the company Tieto-X discusses a successful customer relationship marketing (CRM) implementation and illustrates diverse ongoing changes to which the company had to respond. Tieto-X is Finlands leading contract work solutions company that specializes in Information Technology. In 2002 employed about 270 people. The structure of the organisation and the collaboration with its clients made it necessary that the customer could have recourse to Tieto-Xs operational system. This allowed the client, for example, to follow up the progress of an IT project. To cope with its rapid growth, Tieto-X decided to start a total systems renewal process in 2002 (p.6) and to change its business strategy from product/service-oriented to a customer-oriented one (p.8). In addition to this planned change event the company was exposed to several further planned as well as emerging changes that took place on an environmental, organisational and individual level (p. 6). On an environmental level of observation, Tieto-X faced, for instance, the socalled Year 2000 phenomen and Finlands accession to the EMU that both lead to increased business chances through higher demands for IT services. Another emergent change event that affected the company from the environment was the enlarged entry of foreign firms into the Finish market and the accompanied sharpened competetion. On an organisational level several planned change events could be observed in addition to the beforehand mentioned fundamental change of Tieto-Xs business strategy to a more customer-oriented perspective and the final CRM implementation. For instance, there were multiple company mergers during the years 2000 and 2002 and the associated merging of disparate organisational cultures. Furthermore, a new product and service portfolio was elaborated and an altered reward system was invented. However, even on this organisational level of observation, Tieto-X had to cope with an emergent change event, namely the turnover of top management. Moreover, you could observe different planned and emergent change events on an individual level. Thus, changes in occupational descriptions and new divisions of tasks represented planned change events and the rise in turnover of salespeople as well as the request for new competencies consituted emergent changes to which the company had to respond. The example illustrates that organisational change is a multifaceted phenomenon (p.9) with planned and emergent changes happening on an environmental, organisational and individual level. Tieto-Xs CRM implementation was successful because the organisation managed to deal with both the anticipated as well as the ongoing and unforeseen changes. Complementing the two discussed cases that clearly demonstrate the need for organisations to pay attention to both planned and emergent changes, Burnes is a decisive advocate of the combinational perspective. For instance, he draws on the case of XYZ construction, a multi-national enterprise that used planned as well as emergent changes between 1996 and 2000 to transform itself, illustrating that planned and emergent changes are not to be seen as competitors and that they are neither mutually exclusive nor incapable (Burnes, 2004, p.899). In addition to spotting the right moment when an organisation is ready for a change, he identifies the ability to understand the organisational context as a key competency of management to ensure successful organisational changes. Thus, the management has to comprehend the organisations nature and its circumstances that determine what and how changes have to occur (Ibid.). Possible reasons for a onesided perspective Regarding this discussion one might ask why people solely considered a planned or emergent change approach in the first place. The reasons for managers to consider planned change initiatives seem obvious. First, planned change programmes communicate a sense of security and control (e.g. Nutt, 1993). The idea of a change initiative starting at a certain point, running through a series of predetermined stages and ending at a predefined endpoint might appear riskless and especially appealing to managers who face the pressure of conducting a change programme while keeping up the business as usual. Furthermore, people perceive uncertainness as strongly aversive in general (Bordia, Hobman, Jones, Gallois and Callan, 2004). Even if one could argue that this promised predictability might be illusionary when conducting change problems in real dynamic business environments with people who are, at least partly, led by their own desires, fears, perceptions and assumptions, one has to take into a ccount that some situations certainly require a planned, systematic approach. Consider for example the introduction of a new IT-sytem. On the other hand, advocates of the emergend change approach might argue that planned changes are useless because of the unpredictable nature of the organisations business environment and the change process in general. Thus, they might ask why attempt a planned change anyway if you assume that plan A does not lead to anticipated result B. Here you see a problem that is often associated with approaches that arise out of a backblash from an apparent devaluated one. Although the main ideas themselves seem totally reasonable and appropriate, a sheer focus on the newly originated aspects might turn out to be as insufficient as the initially criticised approach. Conclusion This essay critcally discussed the statement that as the environment becomes more unpredictable, OD will have to help organisations learn to work with emergent change (in addition to planned change). Therefore, I introduced the traditional approach of planned change and the critical review that faced it especially during the 1980s. The Emergent Change approach that arouse out of the outlined points of cristicsm was presented subsequently. Afterwards, I challenged the appropriateness of the Emergent Change approach and raised the question if it might be necessary to consider both approaches to set the conditions for successful organisational changes. Hence, I analysed this question by presenting two case studies of organisations that faced planned and emergent change events during their organisational changes. Both companies succeed due to their attention paid to both approaches. This fact and Burkes case study strengthened my belief in the beforehand raised question and led to my con clusion that an organisation must to be able to deal with planned and emergent changes to survive in the dynamic and unpredictable environment of the 21st century.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Mary Shelley and Jonathan Swift were completely usÃ¢â¬ (Swift, 73). Swift doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think highly of chambermaids. Swift in general portrays females, even his wife, in a rather unjust way. The girls of Brobdingnag Ã¢â¬Å"would strip themselves to the skin, and put on their smocks in my presence, while I was placed on their toilet directly before their naked bodies, which, I am sure, to me was very far from being a tempting sight, or from giving me any other emotions than those of horror and disgust.Ã¢â¬ (Swift 133) GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts clearly address the youth of SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s time. Contrary to SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s writing, ShellyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein portrays females in an esteemed fashion. Females play active roles in Frankenstein, whether to Victor or to Felix. In fact, women help Victor develop in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes which is impossible to notice unless they are mentioned. Elizabeth is the guiding light of Victor, before and after his maddening state of c reation. When Victor is re-united with Elizabeth he describes her in romantic fashion, Ã¢â¬Å"time had since I last beheld her; it had endowed her with loveliness surpassing the beauty of her childish years.Ã¢â¬ (Shelly 67) This is completely opposite to Gulliver. Whether it be his mom, Justine, or Elizabeth; Victor has positive encounters with females. It can also be noted that the Frankenstein monster Ã¢â¬Å"demand[s] a creature of another sexÃ¢â¬ ¦ and it shall content meÃ¢â¬ (Shelly 135). This request that the monster asks for is crucial as it shows the necessary interactions between males and females that Shelly, not Swift, shows. Although both stories are completely different, they have one underlying theme that they both follow. All of the main characters of both stories point out major human flaws. Gulliver and the Frankenstein monster are depictions of human nature. Gulliver shows this through the people and societies he meets in his travels. Swift, through Gulliver, depicts the flaws of modern religion with the disputes of the Lilliputians and their beliefs of breaking Ã¢â¬Å"eggs at the most convenient endsÃ¢â¬ (Swift 59). The reader quickly dismisses this conflict as laughable because of the absurdity of the dispute, and this is a perfect example of SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s uncanny satirical powers. Swift leaves no group unscathed in his book. Gulliver ,while traveling through the Islands of Laputa, talks about scientist and their projects in that Ã¢â¬Å"The only inconvenience is, that none of these projects are yet brought to perfection, and in the mean time, the whole country lies miserably wasteÃ¢â¬ (Swift 196).
Monday, November 11, 2019
It was a cloudy summer day, the first week in June following my high school graduation. I was meeting my boyfriend and his family out on Shasta Lake who were enjoying the week on a houseboat. This would be the first time meeting all his aunts, uncles, grandparents, and cousins. I did not expect for the meeting to end up like this. Brandon, my boyfriend, and his younger cousin, Jake, picked me up at Packers Bay in the ski boat. It was a chilly morning and I was in shorts and tank top and had only my towel to keep me warm. The boys forgot where the houseboat was parked in the lake. We spent the next hour and half searching the entire area of Shasta Lake for their houseboat. Ã¢â¬Å"Brandon, just call your mom and ask where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re at,Ã¢â¬ I mentioned as an idea. Ã¢â¬Å"Embarrassing as it is, I guess I will,Ã¢â¬ Brandon sighed. He called his mom, and the first thing she said, Ã¢â¬Å"Your lost arenÃ¢â¬â¢t you?Ã¢â¬ Mothers know everything. We finally found our way to the houseboat. We climbed out of the boat, and one after another, each family member said their hellos and each gave me a very welcoming hug. I felt like family already. We sat in the houseboat for about 30 minutes socializing and eating breakfast, when BrandonÃ¢â¬â¢s dad, Gary, decided to tell us we were moving the houseboat to a different spot for the day. Moving the houseboat is a lot more challenging than just one boat because the ConnollyÃ¢â¬â¢s also had two jet skies, the ski boat and an old tin fishing boat (which wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even registered). Ã¢â¬Å"Brandon, you and Ally take the ski boat. Jake, you hop in the fishing boat and the girls got the jet skies. Get out in front and lead the way to another cove,Ã¢â¬ Gary said with much authority. So Brandon and I jumped in the ski boat and drove out way past the houseboat waiting for everyone to get situated. Jake, 15 at the time took control of the tin fishing boat. We all figured that he had driven a boat like that before, but we may have been wrong. Enjoying the cloudy day, Brandon and I sat in the ski boat waiting for Jake to make his move. And we heard the motor start and Jake was moving. Phew. There were some waves coming from BrandonÃ¢â¬â¢s messing around in the boat that Jake was hitting, but we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think anything of it. After talking for a little bit, we turn around to check on JakeÃ¢â¬â¢s progress and we see him flying through the air and the tin boat going very fast around and around and Jake was no where to be found. His head popped up out of the water and than his hand came up with his phone in hand and he screamed, Ã¢â¬Å"Help!Ã¢â¬ Brandon threw him and a life buoy and told him, Ã¢â¬Å"GET AWAY FROM THE BOAT!Ã¢â¬ The boat was still spinning out of control and one hit from the tin boat would kill Jake instantly. Since it was a cold morning, Jake was in two pairs of sweatpants and a sweatshirt and he had his Nike tennis shoes on. Swimming was a lot more difficult. He reached the life buoy and made it safely to our ski boat. But this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the tragic event. It took a while for the family on the houseboat to realize what was going on, than next thing we know we see Uncle Dan fly out on one of the jet skies. He seemed like superman or maybe even batman. He looked like he was going to be the hero of this crazy event. We never even thought he would be the victim. From the ski boat, Brandon, Jake, and I all thought that with the tin fishing boat spinning out of control, Uncle Dan was just going to take the front of the jet ski and stop the tin boat. Nope. Wrong. Next thing we know he is in the water. Ã¢â¬Å"What is he doing?Ã¢â¬ I asked Brandon in a very worrisome voice. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not quite sure.Ã¢â¬ He replied. Dan swims towards the spinning boat and reaches to grab the front of it when it comes around and he misses. So he goes in one more time. Strike two. Misses again. Third times a charm? Not in this story. He swims in for the third time and as the boat makes its 360 rotation it seemed, as every noise around us was silent except for the sound of rocks in a motor. But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t rocks. It was Uncle Dan. I looked at Brandon and Jake in horror. What was going on? It seemed like he was in the water forever before he popped up. Finally he did. In a very settle and quite voice, he raises his hand covered in red thick blood and a face that looked like it was dipped in ketchup, says, Ã¢â¬Å"Help. Help. IÃ¢â¬â¢m hurt.Ã¢â¬ I scream at Brandon and Jake, both swimmers, Ã¢â¬Å"Help him! Get in the water. Help him!Ã¢â¬ Brandon and Jake start stripping off their clothes one at a time and Jake was in the water within seconds. Swimming like it was the last meet of his life, he swims over to Uncle Dan and, with his adrenaline, lifts the middle-aged man onto the jet ski. Blood was everywhere and the tin boat was still spinning. Jake speeds the jet ski along with Uncle Dan and his wounded body towards the shore where the houseboat was still vacated and the next thing I see is JakeÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, who is also DanÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, strip completely naked and used her clothes to wrap up his arm and face. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never been so shocked and scared in my life. Seeing a hand sliced up from the elbow down to the tips of the fingers and a face covered in blood coming from the eye and side of the face, which hid his pain. He was being so tough and he just kept saying in a mellow tone, Ã¢â¬Å"I just donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to loose my hand.Ã¢â¬ He repeated this many times. Next thing I know, Gary was the driver of the ski boat with Uncle Dan laid out in the boat with naked Aunt Janine at his side, they were off to the shore where the ambulance helicopter was meeting to take him to the emergency room. We all else went back on the houseboat and comforted Jake and everyone effected by this horrific accident. The cloudy day served itÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose. After the cops asked all their questions to all of us involved, and finally crashed into the tin fishing boat with their sheriff boat, we could all just relax on the houseboat and wait for the call from the hospital to hear the news of Uncle Dan.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Being an only child or living with siblingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ whatÃ¢â¬â¢s better? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the positive and negative aspects. Being an only child can be positive because you have all the attention of your parents only for you, parents do everything for you. You get the best education, the best toys, trips and parents have more money to spend on you. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to share anything. Likewise, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to fight for your room, food, gifts and for your parents love. There is nothing to feel jealous about or to compete for. Not only that, but you have more friends and become more resourceful and creative at the time of playing. In spite of, being an only child can make you selfish and feel you are the most important person because you are used to all the attention at home. When you are an only child parents tend to be overprotective and expect the best from you always. Moreover, only child can sometimes feel lonely and bored. On the other hand having siblings has some advantages. First of all, there are many members in the family to be around with, play, eat and at the end of the day there is always someone to talk with. In addition, whenever you have a difficulty there is always a sibling who would defend you. Besides when you live with siblings you can borrow things and learn to get along with others in a better way, practice the values of sharing, tolerance, love and caring. In contrast to this, there are also disadvantages in having siblings; most of the time there is no privacy for you. You must share your room, toys, clothes and food because it is very expensive to raise many children at the same time. Furthermore, child with other siblings spend most of the time fighting and arguing. Besides, when parents have more than one child the responsibility is bigger and they are always tired. However, being and only child or not as long as you have a family that takes care of you and loves you is what matters the most. Krizia Gomez
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
POSITION PAPER Essays - Economy, Child Labour, Childhood POSITION PAPER Committee: The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Country: Pakistan Topic I I : Combating Child Labour in Developing Countries Unfortunately Pakistan states that its poverty has been identified as the root cause of child labour by various studies. In spite of its susceptibility to various health outcomes, the child labourers are reluctant to utilise the available health services. Reasons include monetary, long waiting time and attitude of the health providers. Provision of education, especially female education, along with work and infrastructure investment in basic amenities have been suggested as possible interventions. Pakistan records itself among the countries with a high prevalence of child labour and low rates of school participation particularly for girls. Pakistan's school attendance rate is lower than many of its South Asian neighbours. The most recent International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates, based on the national Labour Force Survey 2010-2011 and revealed in the latest publication titled Understanding Children's Work (UCW) in South Asia indicate that 5.7 million 10-17-year-olds, representing almost 20% of all children in the age group, are labourers, with more than two-thirds of those engaged within the agricultural sector in Pakistan. A similar proportion are in unpaid family work. Of the 15-17 year age group, 13.5% are engaged in hazardous work. Children, especially girls, are employed as domestic servants and may be subjected to extreme abuse. Non-state groups kidnap children or coerce parents into giving away their children to spy, fight, or die in suicide atta cks . These children are subjected to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse . Pakistan states that no child would want to face the extremities of child labour in such places but they are left with no other option. The reasons for this type of obligation upon oneself are along the lines of leaving home included; poverty, peers/friends influence and violence, behaviour of the parents, and drug addiction. These children and youths were mostly part of a group that Pakistan was highly dependant on for future generation build. While investigating the criminal record of the street children, it was found that the majority had an arrest record (51.7%). Most (78.1%) were illiterate and only a small proportion knew some type of technical work (14.1%). The major source of income was cleaning/washing cars (39.4%), followed by garbage collection/scavenging (23.1%), begging (11.5%), working in hotels/shops as labourers (7.6%). In order to improve the condition of child labour, a multi-pronged strategy is required. Action at various fronts may include poverty alleviation, ensuring the provision of education especially to female children, establishment of codes of conduct and standards for child labour, involvement of trade unions, corporate social responsibility, legal protection, services provision for rehabilitation of child labour, advocacy involving all stakeholders, appropriate data collection and monitoring along with capacity-building of relevant public or private organisat ions, and action-based research is something that Pakistan as a country hopes to have it achieved. In 2013, Pakistan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labour . Provincial governments of the delegation finalized national plans of action on child labour and bonded labour . In Punjab, District Vigilance Committees were re-established to combat bonded labour , including bonded labour of children. The Federal Investigation Agency also improved coordination among law enforcement groups to better track human traffickers and took action against officials complicit in human trafficking as Pakistan had started its patrolling . Interventions for improving the current situation of child labour in Karachi are being carried out by both private and public organisations in Karachi. At the government level, particularly noteworthy are countrywide centres for working children rehabilitation, established in 1995 with the name of National Centre for Rehabilitation of Child Labour (NCsRCL) by the Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal, whic h is a welfare found created throng by the government in 1991. These centres are working for the rehabilitation of those children, who are removed from labour work due to the involvement in hazardous occupation. However, proper maintenance and record-keeping need to be promoted at these centres. The delegation of Pakistan has v arious private organisations that have established some drop-in centres which provide basic health and education facilities for children, including primary healthcare, washing and bathing, provision of food and medications, vocational trainings
Monday, November 4, 2019
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) - Coursework Example The Social Learning theory argues that the tendencies to be involved in violent acts can be transmitted from one generation to the other. The Feminist Theory, on the other hand, argues that male dominance in the society has an overall effect on how relationships work and are based (Jewkes, 2002). From an assessment point, violence may be caused by among other factors stress from the workplace or general hardships from life itself, partners who experienced child abuse are also more likely to be involved in violent acts, poverty is also a contributing factor (Bachman & Saltzman, 1995), Use of drugs and alcohol is also another factor that causes IPV. Children who have been raised in families that have very strict family values and traditions are also likely to experience these bouts of violence (Bachman & Saltzman, 1995). From the case study, we can learn a few things. Mrs. Jacques has been through violent lifestyle right from when she was young. Based on the description of her children that have been given, the Social Learning Theory has been extended to her children by her. In addition, her youngest son has been shown to exhibit violent behavior by being very rough with her siblings and when playing and not following instructions which are traits that are directly attributable to Mr. Jacques. In another case is that where we are shown of the feminist theory. Mrs. Jacques believes that she has to be very supportive of her husband and believes that he is always right. Her mother also approves of this when she says that she should stay at home with the kids. Another assumption that has been made is where Mr. Jacques could have been violent as a result of work or his overuse of drugs. Mr. Jacques could also have come from a background that was overly strict and, thus, he might have carried forward those attributes to his family. To be able to engage the family there should be a number of factors to consider, such as the willingness of family members to be engaged. However, the first step should involve engaging the parents before heading to the kids who are obviously affected by the events in the family. Mr. Jacques needs to deal with his outbursts, get a job and also quit his drinking problem.Ã
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Realistic in nursing - Essay Example However, it is worth noting that nurses are also humans and are prone to common problems that affect humans. The only difference is that nurses have information. It can be argued that practicing what they teach is the problem due to extraneous factors. For example, nurses may advice diabetes patients on diet. However, they themselves may be unable to follow the diet they prescribe to patient and hence, they become diabetic. Physical and mental situation can be a genetic condition. It follows that a nurse may be unable to control it despite having information. In such situations, it becomes an irony or sarcastic for such a nurse to advice a patient who has the same condition. Such situations may demoralize a nurse to start doubting his or her importance. As such, patients should first consider nurses as human beings who are prone to health problems instead of expecting them to be perfect in terms of